May 2014



Kepler-186f Space discovery: Using NASA's Kepler Space Telescope, astronomers have discovered the first Earth-size planet orbiting a star in the "habitable zone" -- the range of distance from a star where liquid water might pool on the surface of an orbiting planet. The discovery of Kepler-186f confirms that planets the size of Earth exist in the habitable zone of stars other than our sun. Read more ....

Gecko Learning from animals: A research team has moved technology to manufacture high-quality dry adhesives that mimic the stickiness of gecko's feet to the threshold of commercial production. Read more ....

Traffic Hybrid vehicles: What makes cities in India and China so frustrating to drive in -- heavy traffic, aggressive driving style, few freeways -- makes them ideal for saving fuel with hybrid vehicles, according to new research by scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab). Read more .....

Atlantic Ocean floor Life's origins: Life took root more than four billion years ago on our nascent Earth, a wetter and harsher place than now, bathed in sizzling ultraviolet rays. What started out as simple cells ultimately transformed into slime molds, frogs, elephants, humans and the rest of our planet's living kingdoms. How did it all begin? Read more ....

Enceladus Space discovery: NASA's Cassini spacecraft and Deep Space Network have uncovered evidence Saturn's moon Enceladus harbors a large underground ocean of liquid water, furthering scientific interest in the moon as a potential home to extraterrestrial microbes. Read more ....

Neurogrid Brain on microchip: Stanford scientists have developed a new circuit board modeled on the human brain, possibly opening up new frontiers in robotics and computing. Read more ....




The shroud

(This is a feeble translation of "Kafan", a story by Munshi Premchand. Much better translations are available)

Father and son sat silent before a dying fire in front of their hut. Inside, the son's young wife lay writhing in agony of labour pains. Time and again she cried out in pain - a cry which caused the two outside to squirm. It was a winter's night; nature was shrouded in silence, and the whole village was engulfed in darkness.

"Seems like she will not survive," Ghisu said. "We have spent the entire day running around; go and see how she is coping."

"If she has to die, why doesn't she die soon? What is the use of going to see her?" Madhav said. The annoyance in his voice was apparent.

"You are heartless! This is betrayal of someone with whom you have spent the whole year in happiness!"

"What can I do? I cannot bear to see her writhing in pain."

They were cobblers and notorious in the whole village. Ghisu worked for a day and rested for three days. Madhav was so lazy that if he worked for half-an-hour, he spent the next hour smoking his "chillum (pipe)". The two therefore found employment only rarely - nobody wanted to hire them. They hardly thought of work if perchance there was even a handful of grains in the hut. When this got over, Ghisu climbed a tree and cut off the branches; Madhav sold the wood in the market. The two roamed around aimlessly so long as the money lasted.

There was, of course, no dearth of work in the village. It was a farmers' village, and those willing to put in hard work had plenty to do. But these two were called only when the employer could find no one else, and had to be content with the work completed by the two of them together which, otherwise, could have been done by one man.

Had the two chosen to be ascetics, they would not have been required to practise rigorous rules to reach the desired levels of contentment and patience - these qualities were second nature with them. They led a strange life - other than a few earthen utensils, there was nothing else in their hut. They concealed their nudity in rags. They had not a care in the world! Steeped up to the neck in debts! The creditors abused them, and sometimes even thrashed them; but the two had no regrets. They were so poor that people gave away something or the other to them, although well aware that the loans were unlikely to be ever repaid.

They stole peas and potatoes from people's fields, which they roasted and ate. Else they pulled out sugarcane, and sucked at them contentedly in the night. Ghisu had spent 60 years of his life in this way, and Madhav, like a good son, was following in his father's footsteps - rather, he was doing more credit to his father's name.

The two, as usual, were roasting potatoes which they had dug from somebody else's field. Ghisu's wife had died few years ago. Madhav had married only last year. Upon her arrival, the woman laid the foundations of some discipline in the family and looked after the two miserable men. The two had become lazier since her coming; in fact, they had become slightly arrogant - if someone offered them a job they demanded double wages. The same woman was today dying of labour pains, and these two were perhaps waiting for her to die so that they could sleep in peace.

Ghisu, while peeling a potato, said, "Go and see how she is. She must be under a witch's spell, what else! Here, even the witch doctor charges one rupee."

Madhav was worried that if he went inside, Ghisu would eat his share of potatoes. So he said, "I feel scared to go there."

"Why are you afraid? I am here if you need me."

"Then go and see her yourself."

"When my wife was on the death-bed, I did not leave her side for three days. If I go, won't your wife feel embarrassed? How can I see the bare body of a woman whose face I have never seen! Besides, she will feel uncomfortable in my presence and will not be able to express her distress freely."

"I was thinking what will happen if there is a child? There is nothing in the house - no ginger, no jaggery, no oil; nothing at all."

"Everything will come. God provides! The very same people who refuse to lend us any money today will offer us money on their own tomorrow. I fathered nine sons, there was nothing in the house, yet by God's grace I could overcome all obstacles."

It was not surprising for such a mentality to germinate and grow in a society where despite working hard people could scarcely earn a better living than these two; it is not the farmers but the middlemen - who exploited the weaknesses of the farmers - who were more wealthy. In fact, we would say that Ghisu had more wisdom than the farmers, and, so, instead of becoming a farmer had chosen to join the party of idlers. Although he had to wear rags, at least he did not have to slog like the farmers, and nobody could exploit him and take advantage of his helplessness.

Father and son devoured the potatoes, though hot, hungrily - they had not eaten anything since yesterday. Their hunger was so great that they could not wait for the potatoes to cool. The potatoes scorched their tongues. After being peeled the potatoes did not appear to be very hot, but once inside the mouth and when bitten by the teeth the hot core singed the tongue and the palate. The only wise thing to do was to gobble up the potatoes as fast as possible so that they quickly reached the belly where there were enough materials to cool them. The two were therefore gobbling up the potatoes although the effort brought tears to their eyes.

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Some useful links for
your career:


  • Union Public Service Commission - www.upsc.gov.in
  • IIT-Kharagpur - www.iitkgp.ac.in
  • Indian Statistical Institute - www.isical.ac.in
  • Indian Institute of Technology Madras - www.iitm.ac.in
  • Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad - www.iimahd.ernet.in
  • Indian Institute of Mass Commission - www.iimc.nic.in
  • IIT Bombay - www.iitb.ac.in
  • Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad - www.ismdhanbad.ac.in
  • Birla Institute of Technology, Ranchi - www.bitmesra.ac.in
  • Central Institute of Fisheries Nautical and Engineering Training - www.cifnet.nic.in
  • Indian Institute of Information Technology, Allahabad (Deemed University) - www.iiita.ac.in
  • Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute, Kochi - www.cmfri.com
  • Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Mumbai - www.tiss.edu

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